What’s new in Vue 3
If you’re someone migrating your apps to Vue 3 (or) experimenting Vue 3 for your next project this draft should help you kickstart with confidence.
First of all, why does this update matter?
If we look at the journey of Vue so far, it greatly traversed being a library to a framework trend making it much more powerful yet sticking to its lightweight nature.
With the core releasing a new major version, all the other parts of the framework needed to move forward together. Having said that, there were quite a lot of new members we would have in our party during migration. Let’s get introduced!
Why Vue 3?
In short, Vue 3 would be the new default.
Vue 2 would remain in LTS (long-term support) version for 18 months, which means that it will still get security updates and is absolutely safe to stick with it for a while. But, isn’t it a great time for us to migrate our existing projects if any?
Vue 3 is faster, smaller, more maintainable and it’s easier to target native – Evan Vue
Smaller Vue core – Size improvement reached by the combination of greater code modularity, a smaller core runtime, and a tree-shaking-friendly compiler. Thus the new core would thus be reduced from about 20KB to 10KB gzipped.
The compiler will generate tree-shaking-friendly code. If you use a feature that requires a function in your template, the compiler will automatically generate code that imports it. But if you don’t use a feature, then we generate code that does not import it, which means the feature will be tree-shaken.
Better rendering performance – The Vue 3 renderer improves the performance of the rendering process by using optimizations such as the hoisting and inlining of static parts and implementing Vue 3’s reactivity with ES6 proxies.
Below is an infographic proofing the metrics between v-2.5 and v.3.0 proto
Vite – the next generation frontend tooling
Well, despite being one of our favorite topics to speak We’ll try to wrap it short.
Vite is a lightweight and fast build toolchain with first-class Vue SFC support. It is created by Evan You, the author of Vue himself!
Vue 3 official build setup is now powered by Vite. So this would be one of our newest members to welcome!
This topic deserves a separate article on its own, yet will try to pin those dancing in my mind post my experimentations.
Vue 3 introduced the Composition API as an alternative method to the Options API for writing component states and logic. It’s simply a set of APIs that allows us to author Vue components using imported functions instead of declaring options.
It is an umbrella term that covers the following APIs:
Reactivity API, e.g. ref() and reactive(), allows us to directly create reactive state, computed state, and watchers.
Lifecycle Hooks, e.g. onMounted() and onUnmounted(), allows us to programmatically hook into the component lifecycle.
Dependency Injection, i.e. provide() and inject(), allows us to leverage Vue’s dependency injection system while using Reactivity APIs.
Vue clearly pointed out that they don’t have any plans to deprecate options API. Here’s the exact statement from the document FAQ
No, we do not have any plan to do so. Options API is an integral part of Vue and the reason many developers love it. We also realize that many of the benefits of Composition API only manifest in larger-scale projects, and Options API remains a solid choice for many low-to-medium-complexity scenarios.
Pros of using Composition APIs
We can create standalone reactive states and/or properties
In Vue 2 we’re kind of bound to the component scope for the reactive state. With Vue 3 you don’t need a component anymore to create a reactive state.
We can abstract reactive state
Better Logic Reuse
The primary advantage of Composition API is that it enables clean, efficient logic reuse in the form of Composable functions. It solves all the drawbacks of mixins, the primary logic reuse mechanism for Options API
Better Type Inference
Code written in Composition API can enjoy full type inference with little need for manual type hints.
Smaller Production Bundle and Less Overhead
Code written in Composition API and <script setup> is more efficient and minification-friendly than Options API equivalent. This is because the template in a <script setup> component is compiled as a function inlined in the same scope of the <script setup> code. Unlike property access from this, the compiled template code can directly access variables declared inside <script setup>, without an instance proxy in between. This also leads to better minification because all the variable names can be safely shortened.
Better code sharing
Inside the setup hook, we can group parts of our code by logical concern.
More Flexible Code Organization
The Options API uses options like data, methods, and mounted. With the Composition API, we have a single setup hook in which we write our reactive code.
This results in better code organization. Let’s see how with a simple code example. We’ll see how we write in Vue2, rewrite in composition API then further fine-tune with the new script setup syntax.
Common problems with Options API
Having said Vue doesn’t have plans to deprecate options API anytime soon. Why should we care about composition API?
Vue 2 supports a few ways to reuse code between components;
- Renderless components
- Higher-order components
These methods of reuse each come with their own drawbacks, namely:
- Unclear where component options are coming from (mixins)
- Namespace clashes (higher-order components, mixins)
- Performance costs (higher-order components, renderless components)
Scattered logics – In Vue2, component options such as data, computed, methods, watch are used to organize the logic. This approach makes it hard to read and understand as the component grows.
Note on <script setup>
<script setup> is a compile-time syntactic sugar for using Composition API inside Single File Components (SFCs). It is the recommended syntax if we are using both SFCs and Composition API. It provides a number of advantages over the normal <script> syntax:
More succinct code with less boilerplate
Ability to declare props and emitted events using pure TypeScript
Better runtime performance (the template is compiled into a render function in the same scope, without an intermediate proxy)
Better IDE type-inference performance (less work for the language server to extract types from code)
Unlike normal <script>, which only executes once when the component is first imported, code inside <script setup> will execute every time an instance of the component is created.
<script setup> can be used alongside normal <script>
Simpler state management with Pinia
Pinia, a lightweight state management library for Vue.js, allows us to share a state across components/pages & gained a lot of traction recently. It uses the new reactivity system in Vue 3 to build an intuitive and fully typed state management library. It’s now the new default state management library for Vue 3. It is maintained by the Vue core team and works with both Vue 2 and Vue 3.
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